In this article, I intend to give the youth a standard to express their political ideas, emerging from the political actors of the Horn of Africa. There are people who like to react to political events. Therefore, this text will help in the process of reading political events, to understand the thoughts of political actors.

Introduction: Before we get into the process of reading the events, I will give you a picture of the situation in the Horn of Africa, and how each nation defends its point of view.

Defense of the vision: Usually, every nation believes in a vision to defend the destiny issues, to protect their existence, in order to influence the world, they seek cooperation and alliance based on regional and international interests.

Destiny issues: In order to defend the existence of the country, you must know your destiny issues, such as; Land & People / Religion & culture / National defense, security & peaceful coexistence / Governance & rule of law / Socio-economic stability & investment / Diplomatic relations & regional and international cooperation.

Horn of Africa: It brings together 9 countries in broad terms; Somaliland, Djibouti, Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. There are about 330 million people. The past historical period is dark, it is in: a) instability, drought and civil wars; b) the intervention of the western and middle east countries; c) It is perpetuated by opinions that destroy the peace and vitality of the nation.

To understand the political events and conflicting interests in the Horn of Africa you must know the political will and interests of the governments; Somaliland, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia.

Somaliland: The stability and development of Somaliland’s economic infrastructure has played a significant role in improving international relations and diplomacy. It is reflected in the desire of the government of Somaliland; a) political openness and ideas to strengthen cooperation and investment opportunities that international and neighboring countries choose to rely on Somaliland. b) the fruition of political change in the region, it can welcome the recognition of Somaliland. c) an effort to pave the way for her country to have an economic and power influence in the region, benefiting from the strategy of the world commercial route, which is the main-route through which 60% of the world’s trade passes.

Somalia: The instability and the competition for the seats of the Somali politicians are going on in an uncertain situation, as a result of which the government system is protected by foreign forces. It was overshadowed by the wishes of the Somali government; a) ideas against peaceful coexistence in the Horn of Africa. b) conflicting views and interests, and other countries have a visible influence on the construction of the Somali government forces, which are loyal to the countries that built them. c) stupid decisions that threaten the life of the nations in the whole region, such as; fueling conflicts and that the politicians of the Somali government have allowed more than 40 thousand tons of poison to be buried on the coast of Somalia.

Djibouti: It is a stable country, with a developed economic infrastructure, it profits from port services and land leasing, it has leased military bases to different countries. In ancient history, Djibouti is called ‘Copy of Zeila’, which means that Djibouti benefited from the historical trade route of Zeila.

The desire of the Djibouti government is obvious; a) to remain the only channel of trade with Ethiopia, b) to skillfully manage the crisis in the region, whose neighboring countries are the victims, c) to welcome any obstacle that pushes it back any good relations between Ethiopia and the two neighboring countries of Somaliland and Eritrea.

Ethiopia: Ethiopia is the most populated country in the Horn of Africa, landlocked, 100% of their trade goes through the neighboring country of Djibouti. The healthy outlook tells you that business in Ethiopia is walking on top of razor!

The desire of the Ethiopian government’s policy is based on the desire for more than two trade routes, according to the population growth and the needs of the trade market.


Conclusion : the desire of the countries of Somaliland & Djibouti is clearly visible, which are competing for the use of the sea channel and dealing with the most populous country in the Horn of Africa. Also, the Ethiopian government is showing its desire to have a safe more sea-route-trade with its neighbors to increase its commercial share in the international market. While the government of Somalia seems to be in a state of chaos, and the destruction of any views based on cooperation and peaceful coexistence in the Horn of Africa.


Without further ado, here are 10 steps that can help you read political events: –

Step 1: First you must understand the context: gather information about the background of the event, the historical context, and the socio-economic factors surrounding the event. This will give you an idea of the broader picture of the motivation behind the political actions that have taken place.

Step 2: Analyze ideas and perspectives: explore the ideas and perspectives presented by political actors, consider their political beliefs, values, and goals, look for conflicting actions, statements, and actions.

Step 3: Assess the facts: assess the actual reality, consider the economic conditions, social dynamics, geographical factors, and cultural circumstances that may affect current political events, distinguish between rhetoric and actual results.

Step 4: Research principles: identify the guiding principles of the political actors involved in the event, look at the structure of their thinking; party program, political agendas that shape their decision-making, support for other interests. Assess whether their actions are consistent with their stated principles.

Step 5: Analyze actions: focus on actions taken by political actors, examine their policies, laws, executive orders, or diplomatic moves. Assess the impact of actions and their impact on various stakeholders.

Step 6: Interpret political rhetoric: critically analyze sentences, texts and political speeches. Consider the intended audience, the context in which the statement is made, and any underlying motives. Look for inconsistencies, hidden agendas, or competing interests.

Step 7: Consider the political actors: study the individuals or groups involved in the political event. Assess their credibility, track record, allies, and personal interests. Identify the power dynamics and influence of different actors in the event.

Step 8: Seek different perspectives: research different sources and perspectives to avoid bias and gain a broader understanding of the phenomenon. Research past reports, analyze expert opinion and public discourse to get a complete picture.

Step 9: Critical Thinking: Use critical thinking skills to evaluate and organize collected information, look for evidence, logical reasoning, factual accuracy, question assumptions, biases, and histories as possible. ah.

Step 10: Keep track of developments: political events are often dynamic and can change in a short time, keep up with new information, developments, and next actions, to refine your understanding and analysis.

Thank you

Abdulrahman Aar Jama
BA in Management Science, LL.B., & Master of International Law
Golis University Berbera
Berbera, Somaliland
Jul 3, 2024